French pronouns and pictures

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When do we use the direct objects pronouns le, la and les ?
When do we use the indirect object pronouns lui and leur ?

Sometimes you want to shorten a sentence with pronouns rather than using the same noun again. This is similar to how we use it in English in place of nouns. Here is an example :
Did you see that movie yersterday ? – Yes, I saw it.

In French the pronouns come just before a verb to simplify a sentence. Here is an example :
Tu apprécies ce livre ? → Do you enjoy this novel ?
Oui, j’apprécie ce livre → Yes, I enjoy this novel.  
Oui, je l’aime → Yes, I like it. → → Here the pronoun l’ is placed between the subject je and the verb aimer.

How do you know which one to use ?

le, la and les ?

With use them with definite things.The pronouns le, la and les are used with a noun that is directly attached to the verb. It means that you do not need the preposition à. For example, the verb aimer (to like / to love) is one of those verb. For the verb aimer we use the l’ in the singular because it begins with the vowel a. In the plural this is je les aime (I like them).

Another example : La porte est ouverte, je la ferme → The door is open. I am closing it.
The word la porte is feminine so we use la to replace it.

Le document est sur la table → The document is on the table
Je ne le trouve pas → I do not find it
The word le document is masculine so we use le to replace it.

Il veut le gâteau → He wants the cake
Il le veut → He wants it

Il veut la tarte → He wants the pie
Il la veut → He wants it

Il veut l’eau → He wants water
Il la veut → He wants it

Il veut les pommes → He wants the apples
Il les veut → He wants them

Il veut son gâteau → He wants his cake
Il le veut → He wants it

Je veux cette pomme, je vais la prendre → I want this apple, I am going to take it
Il la veut → He wants it

J’ai mangé ce gâteau → I ate this cake
Je l’ai mangé → I ate it

In the negative form, this is :
Il ne le veut pas → He does not want it
Il ne les veut pas → He does not want them

Je ne le donne pas à eux → I do not give it to them
Je ne les donne pas à eux → I do not give them to them

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Learn french vocabulary with pictures for nouns, lessons, pronouns
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Lui and leur (indirect object pronouns)

It works with prepositional verbs, indirect objects, people and animals.
Lui and leur are usually for people, not for things.
The verbs that use lui and leur use the preposition à (prepositional verbs).

For example, here is the verb parler à (to talk to)
Je parle souvent à ma mère, qui veut aller vivre en Russie → I speak often with my mother, who wants to go to live in Russia, je vais la voir
Je lui parle souvent → I speak often with her
lui (with her) refers to ma mère (my mother).

If you are talking about more than one person, you would use leur.  
Je parle à mes frères → I am talking to my brothers
Je leur parle → I am talking to them
leur (to them) refers to mes frères (my brothers).

Il écrit à son frère, qui veut aller le rejoindre, pour le voir → He is writing to his brother, who wants to join him, to see him
Il lui écrit → He is writing to him

Il écrit à sa soeur → He is writing to his sister
Il lui écrit → He is writing to her

Il écrit à ses amis → He is writing to his friends
Il leur écrit → He is writing to them

Il écrit à ses amies → He is writing to his friends
Il écrit à quelqu’un → He is writing to someone
Il leur écrit → He is writing to them

Téléphoner à (to phone to) is also a prepositionnal verb.  
Il téléphone à son patron → He is phoning his boss
Il téléphone à quelqu’un → He his phoning someone
Il lui téléphone → He is phoning to him

Il téléphone à femme → He is phoning his wife
Il lui téléphone → He is phoning to here

The negative form is
Il ne lui écrit pas → He does not write to her

In the command form we put it after the verb with a hyphen.
Dis-leur la vérité → Tell them the truth
That applies to both form of pronouns.
La porte est ouverte. Ferme-la → The door is open. Close it !

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Students : learn french verbs for the verb voir, parler
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En and Y

We use en in general with a verb + de or des.
Here are some examples :  
Ce gâteau c’est le mien. Il veut du gâteau → This cake is mine. He wants some cake
Il veut de la tarte → He wants pie Il veut de l’eau → He wants some water
Il veut des pommes → He wants apples
To replace gâteau, tarte, eau and pommes we use en because there is the verb vouloir + de. → → Il en veut → He wants some
To understand what en means here, you need the context.

It can be used for masculine, feminine et plural names. It also works with indefinite articles, here are some examples :
Il veut un gâteau, le mien→ He wants a cake, mine  
Il en veut un → He wants one
In this case you need to add the indefinite article un.

Il veut une pomme → He wants an apple
Il en veut une → He wants one

Tu as des frères ? → Do you have brothers ?
Oui, j’en ai trois → Yes, I have three
en replaces frères.

Il parle de son travail → He is talking about his job
Il en parle → He talks about it

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Have a look at the others articles to get more lessons for a newbie, professor, to get more vocabulary. 

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Thank you for reading this article !
Thomas 😀