The radical of a verb + the 3 verb groups

French verbs

The radical of a verb + the 3 verb groups

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Hello English speakers who want to learn French 🙂 !

In this article I share with you how to recognize :

  • the radical of a verb
  • the verbs of the three verb groups

 

The structure of a verbal form

Identify the radical of a verb

  • Many verbs have a radical that does not change. To identify it, you have to remove the element that varies.

Verb in the infinitive : RentrerTo enter/get in (verb of the 1st group)

Je

rentre (indicatif présent) → I return/ get in

Nous

rentrons (indicatif présent) → We return/ get in

Il

rentrerait (conditionnel présent) He would return/ get in

If we compare these 3 verb forms of Rentrer, we find that the invariable element is rentr- : rentr- is the radical of the verb Rentrer.

 

  • Other verbs have a radical that varies from one mode to another, from one time to another, from one person to another. The same radical can take up to 7 different forms.

Verb in the infinitive : DevoirTo have to/must (verb of the 3rd group)

Je

dois (indicatif présent) → I must/have to

Nous

devons (indicatif présent) → We must/have to

Tu

dois (indicatif présent) → You must/have to

Je

devrai (indicatif-Futur simple) → I will must/have to

Il

doit (indicatif présent) → He must/has to

Ils

devaient (indicatif-Imparfait) → They had to

The classification of verbs is done in three groups. It takes into account both the endings of the infinitives and the variations of the radical.

 

The verb groups

The verbs of the 1st group

The verbs of the 1st group have an infinitive in -er. With few exceptions the radical is fixed. Even when he knows variations, they are weak and he remains in general very easy to recognize.

Verb in the infinitive : Aimer To like

J’

aime (indicatif présent) → I like

Nous

aimions (indicatif imparfait) → We liked

Ils

aimeraient (conditionnel présent) → They would like

The ending of the infinitive is -er.
The radical at all times is aim-.

Verb in the infinitive : VoyagerTo travel/trip

Je

voyage (indicatif présent) → I travel

Nous

voyageons (indicatif présent) → We travel

The ending of the infinitive is -er.
The radical variation is limited to adding an e to 1st and 2nd person plural.

Notes :
The verb Aller is not part of the verbs of the 1st group, since it presents important radical variations. This irregular verb of the 3rd group is the only verb in -er not to be classified in the 1st group.

Verbs of the 2nd group

The verbs of the 2nd group have :
an infinitive in -ir
-a participle present in –issant (forget it for now it is too complicated)
-a 1st and a 2nd person of the plural in -issons et -issez

Verbe à l’infinitif : FinirTo finish

Je

finis (indicatif présent) I finish

Nous

finissons (indicatif présent) → We finish

Vous

finissez (indicatif présent) → You finish
finissant (participe présent) → finishing

The radical of the verbs of the 2nd group has two forms:
-a form in i
-a form in iss

The verbs of the 3rd group

The 3rd group is all the other verbs.
It comprises :
-the verbs in -ir that do not make their present participle in -issant (example : courir running, partir leaving)
-very verbs in -oir (example: devoir have to, pouvoir can)
-the verbs in -re (example: conclure to conclude, prendre to take, vaincre to overcome)

Irregular verbs

These are the verbs like être to be, avoir to have, aller to go, dire to say, faire to do
Their radical forms are both numerous and very different from each other.

Verb in the infinitive : être

Je

suis → I am

Il

sera (indicatif futur) → he will be

Tu

es → you are

Qu’il

soit (subjonctif présent) → wether

Ils

sont → they are soyons (impératif présent) → let’s be

Il

était (indicatif imparfait) → he was

Il

fut (indicatif passé simple) → he was

The radical of the verb être counts eight variants.

 

Exersises

Indicatif présent → Present indicative

Les verbes du 1er groupe

1 – Infinitive : Jouer. 1st person singular : je joue. Radical : ……………………………..……………….……………………

To play → I play

2 – Infinitive : Continuer. 1st person plural : nous continuons. Radical : …………………………..………………….

To carry on → we carry on

3 – Infinitive : Distribuer. 2nd person plural : vous distribuez. Radical : ……………………………………………….

To distribute → you distribute

4 – Infinitive : Echouer. 2nd person singular : tu échoues. Radical : ………………………………………….…………..

To fail → you fail

5 – Infinitive : Louer. 3rd person singular : elle loue. Radical : ………………………………………………………………

To rent → she rents

6 – Infinitive : Secouer. 3rd person plural : elles secouent. Radical : ………………………………………………………

To shake → she shakes

7 – Infinitive : Remuer. 2nd person singular : tu remues. Radical : …………………………………………………………

To stir → you stir

8 – Infinitive : Evaluer. 1st person plural : nous évaluons. Radical : ……………………………………………………….

To assess → we assess

9 – Infinitive : Avouer. 3rd person singular : elle avoue. Radical : ………………………………………………………….

To confess → she confesses

10 – Infinitive : Etudier. 1st person singular : j’étudie. Radical : …………………………………………………………….

To study I study

 

Les verbes du 2ème groupe

1 – Infinitive : Adoucir. 2nd person singular : tu adoucis. Radical : ………………………………………………………

To soften you soften

2 – Infinitive : Arrondir. 2nd person plural : vous arrondissez. Radical : ………………………………………………

To round → you round

3 – Infinitive : Aplatir. 1st person singular : j’aplatis. Radical : ……………………………………………………………

To flatten → I flatten

4 – Infinitive : Amortir. 1st person plural : nous amortissons. Radical : ……………………………………………..

To cushion → we cushion

5 – Infinitive : Blanchir. 3rd person singular : elle blanchit. Radical : ….……………………………………………..

To bleach → she bleaches

6 – Infinitive : Bondir. 3rd person plural : elles bondissent. Radical : ….……………………………………………..

To jump → they jump

7 – Infinitive : Désinvestir. 2nd person plural : vous désinvestissez. Radical : ….…………………………………

To disinvest → you disinvest

8 – Infinitive : Choisir. 1st person plural : nous choisissons. Radical : …………..….………………………………..

To choose → we choose

9 – Infinitive : Durcir. 1st person singular : je durcis. Radical : …………..….……………………………………….….

To harden → i harden

10 – Infinitive : Divertir. 2nd person singular : tu divertis. Radical : …………..….…………………………………..

To entertain → you entertain

 

Les verbes du 3ème groupe

1 – Infinitive : Aller. 2nd person plural : vous allez. Radical : …………………………………………………………………

To go → you go

2 – Infinitive : Courir. 2nd person singular : tu cours. Radical : …………………………………………………….……….

To run → you run

3 – Infinitive : Secourir. 3rd person plural : nous secourons. Radical : …………………………………………………….

To rescue → they rescue

4 – Infinitive : Parcourir. 3rd person singular : elle parcourt. Radical : ……………………………………………………

To travel → she travels

5 – Infinitive : Dormir. 1st person singular : je dors. Radical : ……………..………………………………………….………

To sleep → I sleep

6 – Infinitive : Servir. 1st person plural : nous servons. Radical : ……………..……………………………………………..

To serve → we serve

7 – Infinitive : Mentir. 3rd person singular : il ment. Radical : ……………..…………………………………………………

To lie → he lies

8 – Infinitive : Sortir. 2nd person plural : vous sortez. Radical : ……………..………………………………………….……

To go out → you go out

9 – Infinitive : Fuir. 3rd person plural : elles fuient. Radical : ……………..…………………………………………………..

To flee → they flee

10 – Infinitive : Tenir. 2nd person singuar : tu tiens. Radical : ……………..………………………………………………….

To hold → you hold

 

Answers

Les verbes du 1er groupe

1 – jou

2 – continu

3 – distribu

4 – échou

5 – lou

6 – secou

7 – remu

8 – évalu

9 – avou

10 – étudi

11 – modifi

 

Les verbes du 2ème groupe

1 – adouc

2 – arrond

3 – aplat

4 – amort

5 – blanch

6 – bond

7 – désinvest

8 – chois

9 – durc

10 – divert

 

Les verbes du 3ème groupe

1 – all

2 – cour

3 – secour

4 – parcour

5 – dor

6 – ser

7 – men

8 – sor

9 – fu

10 – tien

 

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